- Lugal (big man) or Ensi (great man) were men coming from rich families that were appointed as chief in times of crisis
- Priests were not the only authority figures in these emerging cities. Leaders of wealthy families formed council of elders. In times of crisis the council appointed a lugal or ensi.
- By 3000 B.C. Sumerian cities were fast expanding into city-states that took control of surrounding villages. This expansion brought neighboring city-states into competition for land and water, resulting in warfare.
- Big men who led city-states into battle against their rivals and achieved great victories remained in power and became kings. Those kings then enchanced their authority by building places near the temples and claiming support from priests and gods they represented.